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[Egypt] Fighter Pilot Training Program I


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018

Fighter Pilot Training Program

Classified Information

Operation Background

In order to maintain the Air Force Personnel assigned to manning the different fighter aircraft operated by such Force, trained and with the high quality standards, the Ministry of Defence has ordered for a dedicated Training Program to be conducted to give the pilots more flight hours and practice in a variety of scenarios.

Each Fighter Squadron will conduct the exercises with the aircraft they operate, being the requirements and challenges slightly adapted to the aircraft type. Before all drills, aircraft would be fully fueled and supplied.

The Program would not be advertised on media and no details about the exact skills practised would be made public. The program is mandatory for all active fighter pilots. Air Force Base Commanders would be instructed to participate in the program.

Special attention would be given to medium and close range engagements.

Trained skill: Medium and short range air combat.

Deployed Forces

  • 1st Fighter Squadron
  • 2nd Fighter Squadron
  • 3rd Fighter Squadron
  • 4th Fighter Squadron
  • 5th Fighter Squadron
  • 6th Fighter Squadron
  • 7th Fighter Squadron
  • 8th Fighter Squadron
  • 9th Fighter Squadron
  • 10th Fighter Squadron
  • 11th Fighter Squadron
  • 12th Fighter Squadron
  • 13th Fighter Squadron
  • 14th Fighter Squadron
  • 15th Fighter Squadron
  • 16th Fighter Squadron
  • 17th Fighter Squadron
  • 18th Fighter Squadron
  • 19th Fighter Squadron
  • 20th Fighter Squadron
  • 21st Fighter Squadron
  • 22nd Fighter Squadron
  • 23rd Fighter Squadron
  • 10th Naval Air Attack Squadron
  • 11th Naval Air Attack Squadron

Logistical Details

Location: Designated Airspace over or near the respective Egyptian Air Force bases.

Training Funds


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
This Program will focus on improving the egyptian fighter pilots offensive capabilities. Considering the relevance of dogfighting at short-range by highlighting the importance of the position relative to the opponent. Focus would be made on maneuverability and short range combat tactics. Outperformance of another pilot and that pilot's aircraft is critical to maintain the upper-hand. The considered "basic" maneuvers, which the pilots would have already seen during their instruction, would be reviewed and the pilots mastery of them improved.

These maneuvers are identified as:
  • Combat spread
  • Pitchback
  • Bell Tailslide
  • Split S
  • Immelmann turn
  • Thach Weave
  • Scissors
  • Chandelle
All squadrons would make a total of 25 sorties during this course, plus participate in a series of theoretical classes conducted on ground and with the use of simulators. No live-fire exercises are scheduled during this course. Before the start of each sortie, all aircraft would be subject to the routine check and fully fueled.


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
The first sorties would focus on the initial manouvers a pilot usually executies while engaging an enemy aircraft or aircrafts in doghfight.

Combat spread is one of the most elemental manouvers for pre-positining before engaging. A pair of attacking aircraft will separate. The fighter with the lower altitude becomes the defender, while the wingman flies above in "the perch" position. The defender will then attempt to lure their opponents into a good position to be attacked by the wingman.

This manveuer would be confronted with defensive splits, that basically consist of a pair of fighters splitting into opposite directions, forcing the attackers to follow only one aircraft. This allows the other defender to circle around, and maneuver behind the attackers.

This first drill would be carried out by each squadring designating attacker and defender pairs and pairing them up against each other, trying to get missile locks (short ranged) or machine gun barrage (simulated). Once complete, they would exchange roles. The first 3 sorties would consist of this exercise.

Sorties 4 to 6 would consists of a similar procedure, but the defensive maneuvers would be expanded with the implementation of "sandwich" maneuvers (two defenders flying side by side at the same altitude and when an attacker maneuvers onto the tail of one aircraft, the defender will make a sharp turn away from the wingman. Simultaneously, the wingman turns in the same direction as the defender. When both fighters turn 90 degrees, they will come into single-file alignment with each other, "sandwiching" the attacker in the middle. Because the attacker is distracted chasing the defender, this allows the wingman to maneuver onto the attacker's tail for an easy shot.

As well as making "breaks" (at the moment the attacker is sppoted incoming from behind, the defender will breaks. The maneuver consists of turning sharply across the attacker's flight path, to increase angle off tail, exposing the attacker's guns for only a brief instant (snapshot).

All squadrons would carry out this first 6 sorties.


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
The pilots would continue their training, always according to the plan, and involving all Fighter Squadrons in the Egyptian Air Force and Naval Air Arm.

The maneuvers to be practiced would get increasingly more difficult and demanding. As a new way to counter an enemy aircraft "breaking", the pilots would now practice once more (like they did during initial training) the famous "barrel roll". This maneuver consists of performing a roll and a loop, completing both at the same time, resulting in a helical roll around a straight flight path and a virtual 90 degree turn, using all three dimensions, in the direction opposite of the roll. The move culminates with the attacker aircraft's nose pointed in the direction of the defender's travel.

This move would be practice by facing flights of 2 aircraft against each other and trying to outmaneuver with the this tactics. ONce complete, the roles would be exchanged in order to both groups be attacker and defender.

Sorties 7 to 9 would consist of this practice.

Afterwards, on sorties 10 to 12, the pilots would expand their "generic" barrel roll with the more demanding and difficult Lag displacement roll and High-g barrel roll.

The first one is used to reduce the angle off tail by bringing the attacker from lead pursuit to pure, or even lag pursuit. The maneuver is executed by rolling up and away from the turn, then, when the aircraft's lift vector is aligned with the defender, pulling back on the stick, bringing the fighter back into the turn.

The second is a combination of a loop and a snap roll. A high g barrel roll is a last-ditch defensive maneuver, performed when the attacker has achieved a suitable guns solution, in order to cause an overshoot. The high-g barrel roll is a violent maneuver which is performed much more aggressively than a normal barrel roll.

Once again, these maneuvers would be trained by facing 2 times and exchange roles (attacker/defender).

All pilots would carry out this exercises in order to gain mastery of the different types of barrel rolls.


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
Continuing with the Fighter Training Program, the Squadrons would now begin working on impriving their executions of High-side guns pass, Immelmann Turns and Split-S.

The first one is basically a tactic to be employed on the offensive in those case where the attacker has achieved a high altitude advantage vis a vis the target aircraft. It consists of a powered dive toward the rear quarter of a lower flying opponent. Shooting with the cannons in a single, high-speed pass, the attacker uses excess kinetic energy to disengage from the fight in a zoom climb back to a safe altitude, restoring the potential energy allowing so the attacker to set up another attack and dive again. A high-side guns pass is a very effective tactic against a more maneuverable opponent, where the turning battle of a dogfight is best avoided.

The second maneuver, the Immelmann Turn, is essentially a trade-off between airspeed in favor of altitude at a 180° change in direction. The aircraft performs the first half of a loop, and when completely inverted, rolls to the upright position.

Finally, the Split-S is the opposite of the Immelmann Turn, consisting of rolling inverted and pulling back on the stick, diving the aircraft into a half loop, which changes the aircraft's direction 180°.

The pilots would practice the maneuvers first alone, and then in simulated dogfights, were pairs of aircraft act as defenders and others as attackers, exchanging roles in order to both sides train and practice all maneuvers.

Flights 13 to 15 would consist of these exercises.


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
Training would continue with more maneuvers being practiced up to perfection.

In this next few sessions, focus would be put on low and high Yo-Yo maneuvers. The low yo-yo consists in sacrificing altitude for an instantaneous increase in speed, with the aim to make the objective overshoot. This maneuver is accomplished by rolling with the nose low into the turn, and dropping into a steeper slice turn. By utilizing some energy that was stored in the vertical plane, the attacker can quickly decrease range and improve the angle of the attack, literally cutting the corner on the opponent's turn.

Instead, the high yo-yo maneuver usually follows the execution of a low one and is very difficult to counter. It is used to slow the approach of a fast moving attacker while conserving the airspeed energy. The maneuver is performed by reducing the angle at which the aircraft is banking during a turn, and pulling back on the stick, bringing the fighter up into a new plane of travel. The attacker then rolls into a steeper pitch turn, climbing above the defender.

The high yo-yo maneuver has also a defensive variant, which will also be reviews during these sessions due to its close relation with the standard high yo-yo maneuver. This maneuver is performed when the attacker rolls away from the turn to begin the correction. The defender will begin to relax the turn by easing off of the stick, called "unloading", which causes both turn radius and speed to increase, restoring the fighter's lost energy. If the defender maintains the same angle of bank, the subtle maneuver will be very difficult for the attacker to spot. When the attacker completes the out-of-plane maneuver, the defending fighter has regained some of its energy. This allows the defender to, once again, turn harder into the attack, regaining an angular advantage over the higher energy attacker. If the attacker is surprised by the maneuver, a high Yo-Yo defense might even cause an overshoot.

As with all previous sessions, the Squadrons would split in groups and face each other in dogfight drills, having to put into use the maneuvers reviewed. Once complete, roles would be exchange in order for all patiipants to practice both sides of the drill.


Arab Republic of Egypt
Jul 1, 2018
Next up on schedule would be the practice of the different types of "Scissors" maneuvers. Sorties 20 to 22 will be dedicated to this.

The so called "scissor" maneuvers are a set of turn reversals and flight path overshoots intended to slow the relative forward motion of the aircraft in an attempt to either force a dangerous overshoot, on the part of the defender, or prevent a dangerous overshoot on the attacker's part. The defender's goal is to stay out of phase with the attacker, trying to prevent a guns solution, while the attacker tries to get in phase with the defender. The advantage usually goes to the more maneuverable aircraft.

On turn, the Scissor maneuvers can be divided into two groups:

- Flat scissors
- Rolling scissors

The first one is usually executed after a low-speed overshoot in a horizontal direction, while the latter are more common to happen after a high-speed overshoot from above.

As usual, the exercises would be conducted by splitting the groups and making teams of 2 face each other, later on exchanging roles.